Printer Friendly Fact Sheet - 1. Community Description : These are boreal, open canopy woodlands in which black spruce is strongly dominant but is sometimes mixed with red spruce or white pine. The shrub layer often has smaller black spruce and a scattering of evergreen and deciduous shrubs. Peat mosses may be present in low pockets but are not abundant. Back to top. Soil and Site Characteristics : Sites are upland or transitional wetland-upland and are on flat or slightly sloping ground.
Black spruce | The Morton Arboretum
Spruce , genus Picea , genus of about 40 species of evergreen ornamental and timber trees in the conifer family Pinaceae , native to the temperate and cold regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Spruce pulp is important in the paper industry, and timber from the trees is used in a variety of applications. Resonant spruce wood is used for sounding boards in pianos and the bodies of violins as well as in construction and for boats, airplanes, and barrels. Several species are cultivated as ornamentals, and some are grown as Christmas trees. Spruces are pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged, needlelike leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.
Trees of Wisconsin. Picea mariana Mill. Britton, Sterns and Poggenb.
These conifers feature needles attached to the branch by a swollen area called a pulvinus or joint-like structure, which allows extra flexibility and movement. The pulvini are arranged in a whorl around the branch. The needle shape is another clue: If you slice straight across a needle, it exhibits either a triangular or square shape. The female cone scales of spruce are more flexible than those of pine trees. The bird's nest spruce is a variety of Norway spruce that forms a dwarf round shrub with an indentation on the top, making it look like a bird's nest.